Pueblo Bonito

Information

Samples:
"Recent University of New Mexico re-excavation of trenches originally dug in the trash middens directly south of Pueblo Bonito in the 1920s recovered hundreds of thousands of fragmentary artifacts. For this analysis, we selected sherds from these contexts representing 5 different vessels that were either cylinder jars or pitchers. Three were characterized as probable cylinder jars, one as a definite pitcher, and one as an indefinite cylinder jar/pitcher.The selected sherds date between A.D. 1000 and 1125 based on decorative styles." (Crown and Hurst 2009:2110)

Analysis:
"The results of the HPLC MS confirmed the existence of theobromine in 3 of the 5 samples analyzed. These 3 samples were those characterized as probable cylinder jars. The sherds from the pitcher and indefinite cylinder jar/pitcher did not show the peaks characteristic of theobromine. Peaks from the extract of the residue from Sample 2001 were evident in the mass spectrum of the sample (Fig. 2), which confirms the existence of theobromine." (Crown and Hurst 2009:2111)

In the Washburn et al. (2011) chemical analysis, theobromine and theophylline were recorded when the "substance was present at 5 ng/mL or higher. At concentrations less than 5ng/mL, signal noise precluded detection with confidence" and "the same convention applies to caffeine except that the quantification limit was 10 ng/mL" (Washburn et al. 2011, Supplementary Material).

ID Other ID Type Subtype Uncal BP (years) ± 1 σ (years) Median cal BP (years) Lower cal BP (years) Upper cal BP (years) δ13C Contaminated?
Sample 2001 ChemicalSample Theobromine
Sample 2 ChemicalSample Theobromine
Sample 3 ChemicalSample Theobromine
Sample 4 ChemicalSample Caffeine, Theobromine, and Theophylline
Sample 10 ChemicalSample Theobromine
Sample 11 ChemicalSample Theobromine
Sample 42 ChemicalSample Caffeine, Theobromine, and Theophylline
Sample 96 ChemicalSample Caffeine and Theobromine
Sample 75 ChemicalSample Caffeine, Theobromine, and Theophylline
Sample 76 ChemicalSample Caffeine and Theobromine
Sample 80 ChemicalSample Caffeine, Theobromine, and Theophylline
Sample 7 ChemicalSample Caffeine, Theobromine, and Theophylline
Sample 14 ChemicalSample Caffeine, Theobromine, and Theophylline
Sample 100 ChemicalSample Caffeine and Theobromine
Sample 101 ChemicalSample Caffeine and Theobromine
Sample 103 ChemicalSample Caffeine and Theobromine
Sample 16 ChemicalSample Caffeine, Theobromine, and Theophylline
Sample 55 ChemicalSample Caffeine, Theobromine, and Theophylline
Sample 104 ChemicalSample Caffeine
Sample 106 ChemicalSample Caffeine and Theobromine
Sample 109 ChemicalSample Caffeine
Sample 73 ChemicalSample Caffeine, Theobromine, and Theophylline
Sample 78 ChemicalSample Caffeine, Theobromine, and Theophylline
Sample 72 ChemicalSample Caffeine
Sample 90 ChemicalSample Caffeine and Theobromine
Sample 92 ChemicalSample Caffeine and Theobromine
Sample 98 ChemicalSample Caffeine and Theobromine
Sample 94 ChemicalSample Caffeine and Theobromine
Sample 95 ChemicalSample Caffeine and Theobromine
Sample 71 ChemicalSample Caffeine, Theobromine, and Theophylline
Sample 74 ChemicalSample Caffeine, Theobromine, and Theophylline
Sample 77 ChemicalSample Caffeine, Theobromine, and Theophylline
Sample 79 ChemicalSample Caffeine, Theobromine, and Theophylline
Sample 47 ChemicalSample Caffeine, Theobromine, and Theophylline
Sample 1 ChemicalSample Theobromine

Attached Files

Pueblo_bonito_aerial
Air photo of Pueblo Bonito (Photo by Bob Adams, Albuquerque, NM, Wikipedia.org, accessed December 1, 2011)

References Cited

Crown, Patricia L. and W. Jeffrey Hurst
     2009    Evidence of Cacao Use in the Prehispanic American Southwest. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 106(7):2110-2113.

Washburn, Dorothy K., William N. Washburn and Petia A. Shipkova
     2011    The Prehistoric Drug Trade: Widespread Consumption of Cacao in Ancestral Pueblo and Hohokam Communities in the American Southwest. Journal of Archaeological Science 38(7):1634-1640.